the republic of plato pdf

Here the book the republic of plato pdf free by FRANCIS MACDONALD CORNFORD

THE main question to be answered in the Republic is: What does Justice
mean, and how can it be realized in human society? The Greek
word for ‘just’ has as many senses as the English ‘right.’ It can mean:
observant of custom or of duty, righteous; fair, honest; legally right,
lawful; what is due to or from a person, deserts, rights; what one ought
to do.

Thus it covers the whole field of the individual’s conduct in so
far as it affects others-all that they have a ‘right’ to expect from him
or he has a right to expect from them, whatever is right as opposed
to wrong. A proverbial saying declared that justice is the sum of all
virtue.


The demand for a definition of Justice seems to imply that there is
some conception in which all these applications of the word meet like
lines converging to a common centre; or, in more concrete terms, that
there is some principle whereby human life might be so organized
that there would exist a just society composed of just men.

The justice of the society would secure that each member of it should perform his
duties and enjoy his rights.

As a quality residing in each individual,
justice would mean that his personal life-or as a Greek would say,
his soul-was correspondingly ordered with respect to the rights and
duties. of each part of his nature.

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